( پښتو ناولونه pdf ) History of the novel
The first fictional stories that can be called novels were created in Italy at the end of the thirteenth century. But in the eleventh century, a real novel was written. This novel is the novel Don Quixote written by Milne de Cervantes (1547-1616). After that, countless good and standard novels were written in France, England, Germany, Russia, Norway and many other countries. So much so that in the 19th century in France, the best and highest class of literature was considered to be only the novel, and the writer was called only the author who was the writer of the novel. And such poets and dramatists were left alone. In the middle of the 20th century, French novels combined the stream of consciousness and dialogue elements. And so far in the novel, there are new experiences of the author and the author, which are the demands of changing situations, complex life, sensitive environment and the speed of the human mind and the high flight of imagination.
The novel came to Pashto in the form of Urdu translation at the end of the 19th century.
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Now ( پښتو ناولونه pdf ) Technical elements of the novel About the technical accessories, elements and components of the novel, the European novelist Somerset writes: “It is necessary that the novel has a pleasing central idea. The story should be interesting. It has a beginning, middle and end, and the end should be the logical conclusion of the beginning. Yes, there is a possibility of this happening and it should not only bring the central idea to the front, but also take the head of the story out of the story.
The basic elements of such a novel are:
1_ Story: The basic, interesting and important parts of the novel are like the backbone. The story comes from the connection and structure of different events and accidents. But some critics of today do not give so much importance to the story and consider the atmosphere of the novel to be the cause of the story. This bone is missing in the famous Russian novel Dead Soul by Gogol.
2_ Plot: The connection, structure, and closure of various ongoing events or incidents in the story can be called a plot. The plot is not made from the raw material of events. Our critics consider the plot’s slowness, rigidity and room for change to be so sensitive and so essential. But despite this, Walterscott’s (1832-1771) epic novels do not have a clear plot.
3_ Characters: The meaning of characters is individuals or people. These characters drive the story or plot. Characters are either static or dynamic. Large, large or relief. Jot or the story of the ideal character. Novel Nagar presents the characters in his novel in two categories. Descriptive and dramatic. In narrative, the novelist describes his emotions, feelings and thoughts, and in drama, the character introduces himself through his dialogues, movements and gestures. The perfection of a novelist is to create a character in such a way that it leaves a lasting impression on the reader’s mind. For example, Zahir Dar Beg and Kaleem in the Urdu novel (Toubat al-Nusuh) and the character of the doctor in the French novel Nagar Flaubert’s novel “Madame Bawari”.
In modern novels, instead of characters or individuals, human instincts, emotions, psychology and his inner world are dynamic.
4_ Landscape painting (nature painter): In the novel, the painter draws a map of his environment, power debates, and society with the force of his observation and imagination.
5_ Dialogue: The words that come out of the mouths of the characters are called dialogue. These conversations are very important in moving the story forward. According to his social, political, mental and social status, the character expresses his feelings and emotions through dialogues.
6_ Philosophy of life: Characters present the good and bad aspects of one or many problems of life and its factors and results. This is called philosophy of life.
7_ Suspense: In the novel, there are places of surprise, confusion and drawing new conclusions. A successful novel is one that maintains this atmosphere of suspense and wonder until the end.
Other important elements of the novel are narration, emotion, climax, point of view, literary justice and conflict.
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Brief Introduction, Evolution and Technical Award of Pashto Novels:
Like most languages of the world, in Pashto, the novel is an evolutionary form of story or narrative that has been transferred to Pashto from European languages towards Urdu. But the beginning of the novel in Pashto has not been translated. And this honor goes to two Miagano Sahibs who translated the first two written Urdu novels into Pashto. The first translation of the social novel of Deputy Nazir Ahmad is Mara’t al-Aros, which was done by Mia Hasib Gul in 1876 and was published in 1957. Mia Muhammad Yusuf Kakakhel translated another novel of Deputy Nazir Ahmad, Touba al-Nusuh, into Pashto and it was published in 1905. These novels, if they do not fall completely into the art, but the translation is in sweet, fluent and standard Pashto. And it proved to be the main stimulus for the later written Pashto Tabzad novels. In 1877, one year after Naqsh Nagin (Original Repentance), Qazi Abdul Rahman and Pastor Lee Mehr translated an English novel called “Sir Al-Salkin”.
The honor of writing the first Pashto novel was given to Syed Rahat Zakheli. It was written and published in 1912. Its name is “Mah Rukh, the result of love”. This romantic novel is a partial true story. His photography and conversational style of rural society is admirable. After waiting for 27 years in Afghanistan, in 1939, a political and ideological novel by Noor Muhammad “Tara Ki” was published in “Kabul” magazine in the volumes called “Be Tarbita Zawai”, which according to critics It is artistically flawed.
In 1950, Sahibzada Muhammad Idris wrote the first novel in Pashto, which was completely complete and advanced in terms of art and technique. This is a romantic novel and the author’s personal feelings and emotions are evident in it, which critics consider a technical flaw. During this period, Abdullah Jan Asir also wrote a novel “Dars-e-Ibrat” in which he portrayed the society of Pashtuns in a good way. A semi-historical novel by Ghulam Ghos Khyberi “The Sword of Abdali” was published in 1956. A year after this, in 1957, Ashraf Durrani’s romantic novel “Zarke Ijri” was published. Also this year, a very important novel “New Left” was published. It is a collection of national, political, educational, mystical and philosophical motivations of the great Hamza Baba. In his time, he received a lot of praise from the critics. But today some poor critics are trying to bring down its literary status and value. The truth is that I like scientific and philosophical topics, characters and dialogues very much. And this unit is a Pashto novel that I have read with great passion and devotion. Also in these years Rashid Ali Dehqan’s dramatic novel “The Red Amulet”, Mohammad Ibrahim Shabnam’s “Khazhe Angoor” and “Ajra” and Rogh Leoni’s novel “Chrisi” were published. But they did not enjoy it and turned the attention of eager readers to their daughter.